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By Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison

An creation to Radiation safety is an obtainable account of the character of the risks offered by means of ionizing radiation and the equipment of defense, for these new to the sphere and for the non-specialist.
This e-book takes the reader during the basic historical past to the topic, the technical rules underlying the keep an eye on of radiation risks, the organic results of radiation, and radiation detection and dimension. those are through a attention of extra really expert themes together with radiation safeguard in medication and within the nuclear strength undefined, radioactive waste administration and radiological emergencies

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Using results from animal experiments on the relationship between life-shortening and amount of irradiation, it is estimated that the total dose received by the average radiologist from 1935 to 1958 was a few gray. The results of these studies have been used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in deriving the risk factors for irradiation of organs and tissues of the body (see Chapter 6). 91 years) and their daughter products. Even earlier, it had been recognized that there was a remarkably high incidence of lung cancer among the miners in the Schneeberg cobalt mines of Saxony and the Joachimsthal pitchblende mines in Bohemia.

2 BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Physiology is concerned with the functions of the body as a whole and the component organs and systems. Some basic knowledge of physiology is necessary for an understanding of the ways in which radioactivity can enter and become distributed in the body. Humans can be regarded as machines consisting of various interrelated systems, each performing some important function. The systems which are most relevant to an understanding of the behaviour of radioactive substances which enter the body are the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems (see Fig.

Equivalent dose: measure of the biological effect of radiation, the unit is the sievert. Equivalent dose ϭ absorbed dose ϫ radiation weighting factor. Radiation weighting factor, wR: measure of the ability of a particular type of radiation to cause biological damage, related to the density of ionization. wR ϭ 1 for ␤, X and ␥, 5 for protons and thermal neutrons, 5–20 for fast neutrons and 20 for ␣ particles. Effective dose: an indicator of the effects of radiation on the body as a whole when different body tissues are exposed to different levels of equivalent dose.

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