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Extra resources for An extensible model of the electron
We have little trouble thinking about charges dancing in two material bodies, absorbing and emitting electromagnetic fields, sending signals to each other across empty space. It is irksomely different to think about charges dancing in the intervening medium itself, sending and receiving signals. 36 Does charge-fluctuation resonance translate into specificity of interaction? ” Imagine that A and B are two different materials. At each sampling frequency in the summation, compare the terms in the Hamaker coefficients for A interacting with A, AA−A ∼ εA − ε m εA + εm B interacting with B, AB−B ∼ εB − ε m εB + εm A interacting with B, AA−B ∼ εA − ε m εA + ε m 2 ≥ 0, 2 ≥ 0, εB − ε m εB + ε m .
12:26 P1: JPJ/KNP/... P2: GDZ/... 0521839068c01 QC: GDZ/... T1: GDZ CB776-Parsegian-v1 December 25, 2005 SAMPLING FREQUENCIES? ■ Unlike materials can attract or repel depending on the comparative values of εA , εB , and εm at the “sampling frequencies” at which these ε’s are evaluated to be used for computation. Sampling frequencies? Van der Waals forces result from charge and electromagnetic-field fluctuations at all possible rates. We can frequency analyze these fluctuations over the entire frequency spectrum and integrate their force consequences over the frequency continuum.
After learning the language of these fields and motions, seeing how measurements of reflection and absorption turn into calculable forces, and understanding how the electromagnetic wave equations lead us to formulate interactions for a huge variety of materials in variously shaped bodies, we are liberated. What we knew before about charge–charge interactions seems so confining once we can move into a newly accessible area. The van der Waals interaction depends on the dielectric properties of the materials that interact and that of the medium that separates them.